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On Design for Testability

Sunday, April 18th, 2010.

keeping balanceAlmost at every conference, event, training, or consulting engagement someone asks for my opinion on the whole design for testability thing. I’m not quite sure why I haven’t blogged on this topic, especially at the time that a lot of the other bloggers were weighing in, but better late than never.

Before getting into that, I want to start with a slightly broader scope of discussion.

You see, I get asked about “best practices” on all sorts of things. And I try not to be the kind of consultant that responds with “it depends”, but the context of the question often makes the answer irrelevant. And the unspoken context of a best-practice question is:

Given infinite time and budget

The biggest problem that I see with well-intentioned, best-practices-following developers and architects is that they don’t ask the question “is this the right thing for us to be focusing on right now?” Understandably, that is a difficult question to answer – but it needs to be asked, since you don’t have infinite time or budget to do everything according to best practices (assuming those even exist).

About testing

The biggest issue I have with the “design for testability” topic is the extremely narrow view it takes of the word “testability”, usually in the form of more code written by a developer which invokes the production code of the system, also known as “unit tests”.

There are many different kinds of testing – unit, integration, functional, load, performance, exploratory, etc… where some may be automated and others not. Should we not discuss what “design for testability” means for not-just-unit-testing?

And what’s the point of testing anyway?

It’s not to find bugs.

Research has shown that testing (of all kinds) is not the most effective way of finding bugs. I don’t have the reference handy but I’m pretty sure that it’s from Alistair Cockburn’s work. Code reviews are (on average) about 60% more effective.

Don’t get me wrong – testing can provide indications that the software has bugs in it, but not necessarily where in the code those bugs are.

The purpose of testing is to provide quantitative and qualitative information about the system that can help various stakeholders in their decision-making processes. The relevance of that information indicates the quality of the testing. Here are some examples:

  • The system supports 100 concurrent users, with the expected user-type distribution (X% role A, Y% role B, etc), performing expected use-case distributions, and collaboration scenarios.
  • Time to proficiency for new users in role A is expected to be 3 days
  • Alternate #2 of use case #12 fails on step #3

As you can see, the relevance of the above information is dependent on what decisions the various stakeholders need to make. The bullet on load can help us decide if more machines are needed or if developers need to tune the performance of the systems. The bullet on time to proficiency can help us decide if larger investment in usability is required. Information like the last bullet can be used in conjunction with the first two to decide on the timing and type of a release.

The timeliness of this relevant information is critical to the success of a project.

Choosing which and how much of the various testing activities to perform when is something that needs to be revisited several times throughout the lifetime of a project, taking into account the current risks (threats and probabilities) and time and resource investment to mitigate them.

Let me reiterate – we’re not going to have enough time to do everything.

On iterations

If the only part of your organization that is doing iterations are your developers, you’re not agile.

In order to capitalize on the information that testers are providing, you need them in your iterations.

The same goes for the other roles involved in the project – business analysts, DBAs, sysadmins, etc.

I know that 99% of organizations aren’t structured in a way to do this.

I never said doing this would be easy.

On design

Figuring out what kind of design and how much to do when is just as important, and just as hard. Design for testability is one part of that, but not the only one, or necessarily the most important one at any point of time.

Within that design for testability topic is the “design for unit-testing” sub-topic which seems to be the popular one. Before getting into the design aspects of it, let’s take a closer look at the unit-testing side of things.

On unit-testing

The assumption is that having more unit tests will lead to a code-base with less bugs, thus requiring shorter time to get the system into production, which will pay back the time it took to write those unit tests to begin with.

In practice, what tends to happen is that as development progresses, testing code breaks as the structure of the production code changes. Now one of two things happens – either the testing code is removed or rewritten. In either case, we didn’t get the return on investment we expected on the first bit of testing code. Unfortunately, rare is the case where the relevant people in the organization understand why, resulting in the same situation repeating itself over and over again.

Those projects would have been better off without unit testing, though the organization as a whole might have used those experiences to learn and improve. It’s been my experience that if the organization wasn’t conscious enough in the context of the project to notice the situation, it is unlikely to do so at higher levels.

On fragile unit tests

The reason that a unit test ends up being rewritten (or removed) is that its code was coupled to the production code in such a way that it broke when the production code changed. This tendency to break (fragility) is a critical property of a unit test. A fragile unit test will slow down a developer doing work on some existing code – it actually makes the system less maintainable.

For a unit test code to be stable (not fragile) it needs to be coupled to stable properties of the production code. The question of whether the production code is designed in such a way that it has stable properties – is a design question. Is it a unit? If not, you will not be able to write a unit-test against it.

And anyway, who said that every class is a unit, or should be a unit? Domain models (when done right) are good examples of a unit, yet the classes that make them up may not be units. Unit-testing should only be attempted with things which are units.

I think too much weight is put on whether a dependency of a class is a concrete or interface type, and not nearly enough on the nature of the dependency. I wouldn’t blame the hammer for pounding my thumb, and by the same token I think that blame should not be directed towards tools like those from TypeMock.

On tools

There is so much more depth to both design and testability that needs to be more broadly understood. No tool has yet been created to handle either design or testing in such a way that humans can give up responsibility for the outcome.

Over the years I’ve noticed that tools are most significant when used by skilled practitioners, which makes sense in retrospect. Giving a novice carpenter a laser-guided saw probably won’t significantly change the outcome of their work. Ultimately, the skilled practitioners are the ones that create tools – not the novices. And no tool, no matter how advanced, will make a novice perform at levels like the skilled practitioner.

In the case of a project too big for a single skilled practitioner to complete in the time required (or at all), the balance of importance shifts away from tools to the project management topics described above.

In summary

I hope that this post has shed some light on the context in which decisions with respect to testing need to be made. Design is one activity that can support certain kinds of testing, but not the only one, or even the most important one for the given type of testing necessary at that time in the project.

Design is hard. Project management is hard. Testing is hard.

Getting the right mix of people that together have enough experience and skills in these activities isn’t easy.

Don’t expect that sprinkling some interfaces in your code base will be enough.
That doesn’t count much in the way of design, just as writing code in a testing namespace doesn’t count much in the way of testability.

Looking forward to hearing your comments.

  
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20 Comments

  1. Scott Bellware Says:

    Great stuff, Udi. Always nice to see challenges to the status quo, or “orthodoxy”, as I’m want to call it.

    That said, I’ve got a lot of experience in balancing internal testing with external testing and my own experience doesn’t jive with all that you’re reporting.

    Ultimately, it comes to a matter of competence and learning, which you point out in conclusion. Any organization not learning from their practicing is going to end up with sub-par results on anything they do. Any organization creating fragility – whether designing a marketing strategy or designing a software unit is going to have pain.

    I completely disagree with the iteration bias. We’ve begun to abandon iterations and optimize team organization and work management and design beyond what Scrum’s assertions can effectively hold up to. For me, this started more than two years ago, and my work management and organization management expectations are quite a bit different from what they used to be. This includes how we’re making use of testing and the meaning and purpose of testing and its effect on productivity. In the end, I don’t think “agile” has anything to do with this. “Agile” has become so watered down that it’s mostly meaningless at this point, and often an unproductive distraction except when rehabilitating very poorly managed software organization who are still trying to overly manufacturing organizational mechanics and values onto software development. Even then, I’d rather go straight to iterationless work management and control without stopping at the Scrum step.

    Ultimately, doing things poorly usually means having poor results, and doing things goodly means having good results. This is the ultimate mitigator, and the fruit that most organizations fail to harvest whether in software projects or other aspects of business development and operations.


  2. Basharat Wani Says:

    Hey Udi

    Good stuff, I have been reading your post since last few years, also many times I quote from your post.

    Going through “On Design for Testability”, I see few things differently, I considered the Unit testing as “white-box” testing — the tests are performed with full knowledge of the source code. Ideally, developer would be able to run unit tests so that all the code paths would be executed as a result of the testing. In other words, the unit tests would need to create the conditions to go through each line of code to ensure all the code was operating correctly today and tomorrow.

    Unit Test is very critical because it is one of the first testing efforts performed on the code and the earlier defects are detected, the easier they are to fix. Early bug-detection is also the most cost-effective methodology, earlier we catch them less it would cost and later they are found higher the cost.

    Also when we say Unit-testing should only be attempted with things which are units (or components), this is very subjective and depends on how much capital we want to spend, but I would always prefer to have all the new code written to have unit tests coverage, as an Investment in Future.

    Basharat


  3. Scott Peterson Says:

    Testable code is usually cohesive as well. Maybe that’s the real benefit to unit testing – it makes poor cohesion harder to ignore.


  4. kris Says:

    hi Udi,

    You’re missing a very important use case for unit tests (or component/integration tests): refactoring! after a year of production you’ll usually have gathered so much more insight into the business domain that you’ll have to refaactor either to implement new features or to improve the performance. having a suite of unit tests will help you achieve this task more quickly.

    g,
    kris


  5. Chris Oldwood Says:

    “In either case, we didn’t get the return on investment we expected on the first bit of testing code.”

    Your ROI is more than that – each time you run the tests you gain value. You either know sooner that you’ve broken something or have confidence that you hopefully didn’t. The tighter feedback loop *is* your ROI.


  6. Szymon Kulec Says:

    Considering domain models, or maybe parts bigger than a single class, as units, was also mentioned on the Ayende’s blog. I often include this kind of tests as unit tests, but in the majority, my tests still cover single classes. Don’t you think than wrapping the whole domain model is too much?

    Have you ever informed your employer about possible paths for the project? For instance: ‘plenty of tests will cost you additional two week’, ‘without these we can finish the project on time’ and so on?

    Take care
    Szymon


  7. Travis Laborde Says:

    I disagree strongly that there is an argument to be made against “Design for Testability” based on time and budget. It’s simply a matter of developer training and ability. As an old saying goes – “the opposite of testable code is… detestable code” :)

    Designing for Testability means adhering to SRP, DRY, and loose coupling principles. Over just about any time span, these principles SAVE time and therefore budget. Even if you don’t write any tests at all, the benefit gained from designing your code in the “testable” way are immense.


  8. udidahan Says:

    Scott Bellware,

    Thanks for your comments – I think we’re very much on the same page. If a certain bias for iterations exists in the post, that is more of a reflection of the industry than what I believe is best. That being said, I do temper my guidance very much based on what an organization is willing and able to hear at a given time, so I may recommend iterations from time to time as the political realities dictate.


  9. udidahan Says:

    Basharat,

    Much of what you’re saying is “accepted truth” in the industry, but in my consulting I have seen a very different reality. Just like not everyone who writes code can write good code, not everyone who writes “unit tests” does that well.

    The assumption that every unit test written is good does not hold up under scrutiny. In which case, it isn’t necessarily catching or preventing bugs – it’s just more code to maintain.

    All I’m saying is for us to be more conscious of the investment choices we’re making, and following up with appropriate reflection from time to time on the return on those investments with real evidence rather than faith.

    Thanks for your comments.


  10. udidahan Says:

    Scott Peterson,

    The term “testable code” is open to interpretation. If the test in question is just asserting that the code is implemented a certain way, “testable code” just means “more code” and is actually a violation of the DRY principle.

    I agree that good code is often easy to test, but the inverse isn’t necessarily true – not all animals are dogs :)

    This stuff isn’t easy, nor is it necessarily easy to teach.


  11. udidahan Says:

    Kris,

    The purpose of refactoring is to improve the design of the code while maintaining its behavior. It is unlikely that that is the highest business priority after a year of production. It is more likely that maintenance programmers will be fixing bugs and adding features – both of which change behavior, ergo not refactoring.

    While I agree that a good suite of unit tests could help in refactoring a well designed code base, there is no inherent assurance that the unit tests are good, or that the code base well designed.

    Hidden dependencies through shared databases and web services are often the places where design and unit tests break down and refactoring doesn’t necessarily help.

    Cheers.


  12. udidahan Says:

    Chris,

    As I mentioned in the previous comment, poorly designed systems have all kinds of hidden dependencies that unit tests don’t target. Changes in one part of a system still can break other parts without unit tests going red. In which case, we’re operating under a false sense of security. Is that really such a good thing?


  13. udidahan Says:

    Szymon,

    I think that most people don’t divide up the system at the right level of granularity (services, business components) which results in domain models which are too large, in which case they’re not a unit either :)

    When talking to clients about unit testing, I rarely get to the point of discussing the cost of *just* unit testing. Rather I focus on helping them find the right mix of the right kinds of testing throughout the lifecycle of the project – along with getting the right kinds of design decisions, requirements, etc…

    Cheers.


  14. udidahan Says:

    Travis,

    Your statement “It’s simply a matter of developer training and ability” is almost right. I’d remove the word “simply” from that.

    Is it easy to get developers with the right level of ability?
    Is it easy to train those developers that are at lower levels of ability?
    And what do we do in the meantime?

    I’d say that “SRP, DRY, and loose coupling principles” fall under Good Design rather than Design for Testability. As I said in a previous comment, well designed code tends to be testable, but the inverse isn’t necessarily true.

    There is lots of value to be gained from well designed systems – I agree. It’s just that we need to understand that that doesn’t happen by itself – hiring practices need to be changed, as do training practices, and more. It is a broader organizational issue than can be solved just by developers writing “unit tests”.


  15. Zilvinas Says:

    Udi,

    Great post. I was wondering if you would be able to recommend any books on testability issues.

    Thanks.


  16. Johannes Brodwall Says:

    It’s always sad to see people who assume that just because they haven’t been able to master something, others won’t get value from it.

    True, it took me a few years to learn test-driven design to the point where I really could benefit from it. But once I and a few other senior developers had that experience, disseminating the skills to level where we experience benefit require only a few months of pair programming and occasional code dojos.

    Once we have a part of our code properly covered with non-coupled tests, the added nimbleness gives us the confidence that we can design for today’s requirements and adapt the code to meet future needs. Since we practice incremental and iterative development, this is essential.


  17. udidahan Says:

    Zilvinas,

    Read books written by testers for testers – James Bach is one of the good authors in that space.


  18. udidahan Says:

    Johannes,

    On your statement:

    “it took me a few years to learn test-driven design to the point where I really could benefit from it”

    I’ve found that to be common. If Design-for-Testability advocates would include the fact that this is a long process involving deep skill acquisition, I wouldn’t have any issue with it.

    What I don’t like is the message that if you have “unit tests” for your code, and your code makes use of interfaces, you will magically get all kinds of benefits.

    Anyway, thanks for your comments.


  19. Shrike Says:

    Udi,
    it’s very interessing topic.
    Some people say TDD is the only way to go and talk about testing in general from TDD’s point of view. That people tend to talk about “core” (as I call them) unit tests. Where “unit” is a class or method. They insist devs should write only unit-tests which are short, fast and have as few dependencies as possible.
    I can agree such tests are nice thing to have. But the biggest problem I personaly can see here is that such unit-tests do not guarantee our whole system is correct. They guarantee a system’s parts are only correct.
    So we have to have some integration (or as they’re often called “layered tests”) tests.
    But if we have to have integration tests why not to make them automated. So we have automated integration tests which guarantee us that out system is ok.
    And here the complex part for me : how to seperate effort onto writing tests between unit and integration tests? How to find right balance?
    If I try to explain “core” unit-testing to some mid-experienced dev I’ll have difficulties. As I have to explain why he should point his efforts onto tests which do not fully guarantee correctness of the whole system.


  20. udidahan Says:

    Shrike,

    As I said in the article, you must assume that there are some tests that weren’t written, in which case there is no guarantee of correctness. Striking a balanace between different kinds of tests is difficult (as you said) but is important – and no, not all tests need to be automated necessarily.


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“I met Udi at Candidate Manager where he was brought in part-time as a consultant to help the company make its flagship product more scalable. For me, even after 30 years in software development, working with Udi was a great learning experience. I simply love his fresh ideas and architecture insights.
As we all know it is not enough to be armed with best tools and technologies to be successful in software - there is still human factor involved. When, as it happens, the project got in trouble, management asked Udi to step into a leadership role and bring it back on track. This he did in the span of a month. I can only wish that things had been done this way from the very beginning.
I look forward to working with Udi again in the future.”

Christopher Bennage Christopher Bennage, President at Blue Spire Consulting, Inc.
“My company was hired to be the primary development team for a large scale and highly distributed application. Since these are not necessarily everyday requirements, we wanted to bring in some additional expertise. We chose Udi because of his blogging, podcasting, and speaking. We asked him to to review our architectural strategy as well as the overall viability of project.
I was very impressed, as Udi demonstrated a broad understanding of the sorts of problems we would face. His advice was honest and unbiased and very pragmatic. Whenever I questioned him on particular points, he was able to backup his opinion with real life examples. I was also impressed with his clarity and precision. He was very careful to untangle the meaning of words that might be overloaded or otherwise confusing. While Udi's hourly rate may not be the cheapest, the ROI is undoubtedly a deal. I would highly recommend consulting with Udi.”

Robert Lewkovich, Product / Development Manager at Eggs Overnight
“Udi's advice and consulting were a huge time saver for the project I'm responsible for. The $ spent were well worth it and provided me with a more complete understanding of nServiceBus and most importantly in helping make the correct architectural decisions earlier thereby reducing later, and more expensive, rework.”

Ray Houston Ray Houston, Director of Development at TOPAZ Technologies
“Udi's SOA class made me smart - it was awesome.

The class was very well put together. The materials were clear and concise and Udi did a fantastic job presenting it. It was a good mixture of lecture, coding, and question and answer. I fully expected that I would be taking notes like crazy, but it was so well laid out that the only thing I wrote down the entire course was what I wanted for lunch. Udi provided us with all the lecture materials and everyone has access to all of the samples which are in the nServiceBus trunk.

Now I know why Udi is the "Software Simplist." I was amazed to find that all the code and solutions were indeed very simple. The patterns that Udi presented keep things simple by isolating complexity so that it doesn't creep into your day to day code. The domain code looks the same if it's running in a single process or if it's running in 100 processes.”

Ian Cooper Ian Cooper, Team Lead at Beazley
“Udi is one of the leaders in the .Net development community, one of the truly smart guys who do not just get best architectural practice well enough to educate others but drives innovation. Udi consistently challenges my thinking in ways that make me better at what I do.”

Liron Levy, Team Leader at Rafael
“I've met Udi when I worked as a team leader in Rafael. One of the most senior managers there knew Udi because he was doing superb architecture job in another Rafael project and he recommended bringing him on board to help the project I was leading.
Udi brought with him fresh solutions and invaluable deep architecture insights. He is an authority on SOA (service oriented architecture) and this was a tremendous help in our project.
On the personal level - Udi is a great communicator and can persuade even the most difficult audiences (I was part of such an audience myself..) by bringing sound explanations that draw on his extensive knowledge in the software business. Working with Udi was a great learning experience for me, and I'll be happy to work with him again in the future.”

Adam Dymitruk Adam Dymitruk, Director of IT at Apara Systems
“I met Udi for the first time at DevTeach in Montreal back in early 2007. While Udi is usually involved in SOA subjects, his knowledge spans all of a software development company's concerns. I would not hesitate to recommend Udi for any company that needs excellent leadership, mentoring, problem solving, application of patterns, implementation of methodologies and straight out solution development.
There are very few people in the world that are as dedicated to their craft as Udi is to his. At ALT.NET Seattle, Udi explained many core ideas about SOA. The team that I brought with me found his workshop and other talks the highlight of the event and provided the most value to us and our organization. I am thrilled to have the opportunity to recommend him.”

Eytan Michaeli Eytan Michaeli, CTO Korentec
“Udi was responsible for a major project in the company, and as a chief architect designed a complex multi server C4I system with many innovations and excellent performance.”


Carl Kenne Carl Kenne, .Net Consultant at Dotway AB
“Udi's session "DDD in Enterprise apps" was truly an eye opener. Udi has a great ability to explain complex enterprise designs in a very comprehensive and inspiring way. I've seen several sessions on both DDD and SOA in the past, but Udi puts it in a completly new perspective and makes us understand what it's all really about. If you ever have a chance to see any of Udi's sessions in the future, take it!”

Avi Nehama, R&D Project Manager at Retalix
“Not only that Udi is a briliant software architecture consultant, he also has remarkable abilities to present complex ideas in a simple and concise manner, and...
always with a smile. Udi is indeed a top-league professional!”

Ben Scheirman Ben Scheirman, Lead Developer at CenterPoint Energy
“Udi is one of those rare people who not only deeply understands SOA and domain driven design, but also eloquently conveys that in an easy to grasp way. He is patient, polite, and easy to talk to. I'm extremely glad I came to his workshop on SOA.”

Scott C. Reynolds Scott C. Reynolds, Director of Software Engineering at CBLPath
“Udi is consistently advancing the state of thought in software architecture, service orientation, and domain modeling.
His mastery of the technologies and techniques is second to none, but he pairs that with a singular ability to listen and communicate effectively with all parties, technical and non, to help people arrive at context-appropriate solutions. Every time I have worked with Udi, or attended a talk of his, or just had a conversation with him I have come away from it enriched with new understanding about the ideas discussed.”

Evgeny-Hen Osipow, Head of R&D at PCLine
“Udi has helped PCLine on projects by implementing architectural blueprints demonstrating the value of simple design and code.”

Rhys Campbell Rhys Campbell, Owner at Artemis West
“For many years I have been following the works of Udi. His explanation of often complex design and architectural concepts are so cleanly broken down that even the most junior of architects can begin to understand these concepts. These concepts however tend to typify the "real world" problems we face daily so even the most experienced software expert will find himself in an "Aha!" moment when following Udi teachings.
It was a pleasure to finally meet Udi in Seattle Alt.Net OpenSpaces 2008, where I was pleasantly surprised at how down-to-earth and approachable he was. His depth and breadth of software knowledge also became apparent when discussion with his peers quickly dove deep in to the problems we current face. If given the opportunity to work with or recommend Udi I would quickly take that chance. When I think .Net Architecture, I think Udi.”

Sverre Hundeide Sverre Hundeide, Senior Consultant at Objectware
“Udi had been hired to present the third LEAP master class in Oslo. He is an well known international expert on enterprise software architecture and design, and is the author of the open source messaging framework nServiceBus. The entire class was based on discussion and interaction with the audience, and the only Power Point slide used was the one showing the agenda.
He started out with sketching a naive traditional n-tier application (big ball of mud), and based on suggestions from the audience we explored different solutions which might improve the solution. Whatever suggestions we threw at him, he always had a thoroughly considered answer describing pros and cons with the suggested solution. He obviously has a lot of experience with real world enterprise SOA applications.”

Raphaël Wouters Raphaël Wouters, Owner/Managing Partner at Medinternals
“I attended Udi's excellent course 'Advanced Distributed System Design with SOA and DDD' at Skillsmatter. Few people can truly claim such a high skill and expertise level, present it using a pragmatic, concrete no-nonsense approach and still stay reachable.”

Nimrod Peleg Nimrod Peleg, Lab Engineer at Technion IIT
“One of the best programmers and software engineer I've ever met, creative, knows how to design and implemet, very collaborative and finally - the applications he designed implemeted work for many years without any problems!

Jose Manuel Beas
“When I attended Udi's SOA Workshop, then it suddenly changed my view of what Service Oriented Architectures were all about. Udi explained complex concepts very clearly and created a very productive discussion environment where all the attendees could learn a lot. I strongly recommend hiring Udi.”

Daniel Jin Daniel Jin, Senior Lead Developer at PJM Interconnection
“Udi is one of the top SOA guru in the .NET space. He is always eager to help others by sharing his knowledge and experiences. His blog articles often offer deep insights and is a invaluable resource. I highly recommend him.”

Pasi Taive Pasi Taive, Chief Architect at Tieto
“I attended both of Udi's "UI Composition Key to SOA Success" and "DDD in Enterprise Apps" sessions and they were exceptionally good. I will definitely participate in his sessions again. Udi is a great presenter and has the ability to explain complex issues in a manner that everyone understands.”

Eran Sagi, Software Architect at HP
“So far, I heard about Service Oriented architecture all over. Everyone mentions it – the big buzz word. But, when I actually asked someone for what does it really mean, no one managed to give me a complete satisfied answer. Finally in his excellent course “Advanced Distributed Systems”, I got the answers I was looking for. Udi went over the different motivations (principles) of Services Oriented, explained them well one by one, and showed how each one could be technically addressed using NService bus. In his course, Udi also explain the way of thinking when coming to design a Service Oriented system. What are the questions you need to ask yourself in order to shape your system, place the logic in the right places for best Service Oriented system.

I would recommend this course for any architect or developer who deals with distributed system, but not only. In my work we do not have a real distributed system, but one PC which host both the UI application and the different services inside, all communicating via WCF. I found that many of the architecture principles and motivations of SOA apply for our system as well. Enough that you have SW partitioned into components and most of the principles becomes relevant to you as well. Bottom line – an excellent course recommended to any SW Architect, or any developer dealing with distributed system.”

Consult with Udi

Guest Authored Books
Chapter: Introduction to SOA    Article: The Enterprise Service Bus and Your SOA

97 Things Every Software Architect Should Know



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